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Organic Agriculture

For more than 10.000 years organic agriculture, i.e. the non – use of agro-toxins and chemical fertilizers, was the only form of agriculture. Its sustainability depended upon the degree of respect for nature. The ancient farmers knew the necessity– by means of replacement of animal and plant residues – to recycle organic matter, in order to maintain a long term productive potential of the soils.

This model was sustainable for millions of years, until the arrival of ambitious entrepreneurs with their particular lucrative interests. Right after the Second World War these entrepreneurs, who until then had been manufacturers of military equipment and chemical weapons, needed to reconvert their factories. This ledto the modernization of agriculture.

Modern agriculture propagated a food production at lower cost and of greater quantity, all this to provide for the needs of a growing world population. National governments stimulated monocultures, financing the purchase of machines, chemical fertilizers and venom, and facilitating the production in extensive areas. Along with the mechanized monocultures and the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers emerged the new plagues and plant diseases, resulting in an increasing use of agro-toxins in order to combat them.

The encouragement of monocultures led to the concentration of revenue in the hands of few. The small farmers didn’t have credit nor land to extend their plantations. In the 70’s, there was a rural exodus in the southern region of Brazil. Half of the small farmers sold their land and migrated to the city.

In the same decade, the hippie culture propagated a life closer to nature. They produced their own toxin – free food, preserving land and environment. Society considered them to be dreamers. Today, this same society’s conscience is awaking to the damages caused by the toxic residues to its and the planet’s health. Despite an increase of the supply of organic products by 20% a year, production can’t meet the demand, thus keeping the price of organic products 30 to 200 % more expensive.

Related websites and portals

Related literature

Livraria Agroecológica
Agroecológica Bookshop .
Phone: (14) 6821-4991

• Fundamentos da Agricultura Biodinâmica – Rudolf Steiner
• Produção Orgânica de Alimentos- Adilson D. Paschoal
• O Sítio Ecológico e Produtivo- (Apostila ED. Agroecológica)
• A Revolução está ficando Verde – P. Rosset et al
• Agricultura para o Futuro- C Reyhtjes et al
• Duas Espigas de Milho- R. Bunch
• Comunitários- A. Cordeiro e A A. Faria
• O Futuro Roubado- Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski
• Sementes: Biodiversidade- L. Pessanha
• Agricultura Sustentável- Eduardo Ehlers
• Introdução à Agricultura Orgânica- Silvio R. Penteado
• Como tornar seu sítio lucrativo- Milton Maciel
• Fundamentos da Agricultura Ecológica- José A. Bonilla
• Agricultor Ecológico- V. franca & T. Moreira
• Agricultura Sust: Manual do Produtor Rural- Ana Primavesi
• Agroecologia: Ecosfera, Tecnosfera e Agricultura- A. Primavesi
• Cultivando a Diversidade- A. Gaifami et al
• O Renascer da Agricultura- E Gotsch
Agricultura & Florestas-J. Vivan
Árvores Brasileiras – H. Lorenzi – Vol. 1
Árvores Brasileiras – H. Lorenzi – Vol. 2
Introdução à Permacultura- B. Mollison e R. M. Slay


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The organic agriculture, targeting a non-use of agrochemistry and soluble chemistry manures, was the last agriculture system through up to ten thousand years. Its supporting was depended of major nature respect.
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